Thursday, November 3, 2011

What are the causes for bleeding gums ?

What are the causes for bleeding gums ?
bleeding gums

presence or absence of gum/ gingival bleeding as an indication of gingival health. before talking about the treatment first we should know the causes for gum bleeding.

Gum bleeding can occur acutely or could have been there for a long period of time (Chronic). Sites that bleed on brushing have a greater area of inflamed connective tissue. Poor oral hygiene is the most common cause of gingival bleeding.

What could be the reasons to have Acute gum Bleeding?

Bleeding gums/ gingiva

  • Acute episodes of gingival bleeding are caused by injury or occur spontaneously in acute gingival disease.
  • Laceration of the gingiva by toothbrush bristles during aggressive tooth brushing or by sharp pieces of hard food can cause gingival bleeding even in the absence of gingival disease.
aggressive tooth brushing 

  • Gingival burns from hot foods or chemicals increase the ease of gingival bleeding.

  • Spontaneous bleeding or bleeding on slight provocation can occur in diseases like acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. In this condition, engorged blood vessels in the inflamed connective tissue are exposed by ulceration of the necrotic surface epithelium.

Chronic( long term )Recurrent Bleeding?

  • The most common cause of abnormal gingival bleeding on brushing is gum disease (chronic inflammation). You may experience bleeding which is chronic or recurrent and is provoked by mechanical trauma (e.g., from tooth brushing, toothpicks, or food impaction) or by biting into solid foods such as apples. Sites that bleed have a greater area of inflamed connective tissue

  • The severity of gum bleeding is increased during pregnancy beginning in the second or third month. oestregon or progesterone hormones which are high in pregnancy  can substitute for menadione (vitamin K) as an essential growth factor for gum disease causing organisms.

Pregnancy gingivitis

Do Systemic disorders cause gum bleeding?

  • In some systemic disorders, gingival haemorrhage occurs spontaneously or after irritation and is excessive and difficult to control. These haemorrhagic diseases represent a wide variety of conditions that vary in etiologic factors and clinical manifestations. Such conditions have the common feature of a haemostatic mechanism failure and result in abnormal bleeding in the skin, internal organs, and other tissues, including the oral mucosa.

  • The tendency to excessive bleeding may be due to failure of one or more of the hemostatic mechanisms.

Drug induced gingivities

  • Haemorrhagic disorders in which abnormal gingival bleeding is encountered include vascular abnormalities (vitamin C deficiency or allergy such as Schonlein-Henoch purpura), platelet disorders (thrombocytopenic purpura), hypoprothrombinemia (vitamin K deficiency), other coagulation defects (haemophilia, leukaemia, Christmas disease), deficient platelet thromboplastic factor (PF3) resulting from uremia,21 multiple myeloma, and postrubella purpura.

  • Gum Bleeding may follow the administration of excessive amounts of drugs such as salicylates and the administration of anticoagulants such as dicumarol and heparin.

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